Where the domestication of the dog took place remains debated, with the most plausible proposals spanning Western Europe,[9][28] Central Asia[28][29] and East Asia.[28][30] This has been made more complicated by the recent proposal that an initial wolf population split into East and West Eurasian groups. These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago. The Western Eurasian dog population was gradually and partially replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago.[28][2] This proposal is also debated.[2]

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Where the domestication of the dog took place remains debated, with the most plausible proposals spanning Western Europe,[9][28] Central Asia[28][29] and East Asia.[28][30] This has been made more complicated by the recent proposal that an initial wolf population split into East and West Eurasian groups. These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago. The Western Eurasian dog population was gradually and partially replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago.[28][2] This proposal is also debated.[2]
Soak your dog thoroughly. Make sure your dog's coat is completely wet before you start applying shampoo to it. If your dog isn't afraid, you can buy and use a hose and water pressurizer attachment for the faucet. This is especially helpful if you have a large dog or one with a double-coat. AVOID getting water in your dog's ears. Water in the ears can cause an infection. Please be sure to only spray water/rinse water up to the dog's neck. The head can be cleaned separately (see below for instructions).
Dry your dog. Use a squeegee or use your hand as a squeegee to force water off of the coat and body. Towel dry him as best as you can while he's still in the tub, so you don't make a mess. Place the towel over your dog’s back, or hold it next to him and give permission to shake the water off their body. Many dogs will learn the “bath rules” and wait to shake until you have placed the towel over them to contain the water droplets. Another type of towel to use is a chamois, which is a thin fleece like towel that is designed to be wrung out when wet. It lessens the amount of towels needed and does the bulk of the work. Using a chamois, then a towel makes drying less of a hassle.
Although dogs are the most abundant and widely distributed terrestrial carnivores, the potential of feral and free-ranging dogs to compete with other large carnivores is limited by their strong association with humans.[7] For example, a review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.[108][109] Although wolves are known to kill dogs, they tend to live in pairs or in small packs in areas where they are highly persecuted, giving them a disadvantage facing large dog groups.[108][110]
Be patient. You may have to go over your dog's coat a few times before you have a smooth, even cut. Don't rush it! Give your dog as many breaks as necessary, and make sure to move your clippers slowly. Brushing up against the coat then going the spot with clippers again help to get a smooth cut. Do will have to be done many times before you are done.
Domestic dogs inherited complex behaviors, such as bite inhibition, from their wolf ancestors, which would have been pack hunters with complex body language. These sophisticated forms of social cognition and communication may account for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations, and these attributes have given dogs a relationship with humans that has enabled them to become one of the most successful species on the planet today.[132]:pages95-136

This article was co-authored by Pippa Elliott, MRCVS. Dr. Elliott, BVMS, MRCVS is a veterinarian with over 30 years of experience in veterinary surgery and companion animal practice. She graduated from the University of Glasgow in 1987 with a degree in veterinary medicine and surgery. She has worked at the same animal clinic in her hometown for over 20 years.
Neutering reduces problems caused by hypersexuality, especially in male dogs.[76] Spayed female dogs are less likely to develop some forms of cancer, affecting mammary glands, ovaries, and other reproductive organs.[77] However, neutering increases the risk of urinary incontinence in female dogs,[78] and prostate cancer in males,[79] as well as osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, cruciate ligament rupture, obesity, and diabetes mellitus in either sex.[80]
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Where the domestication of the dog took place remains debated, with the most plausible proposals spanning Western Europe,[9][28] Central Asia[28][29] and East Asia.[28][30] This has been made more complicated by the recent proposal that an initial wolf population split into East and West Eurasian groups. These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago. The Western Eurasian dog population was gradually and partially replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago.[28][2] This proposal is also debated.[2]
The majority of contemporary dog owners describe their pet as part of the family,[146] although some ambivalence about the relationship is evident in the popular reconceptualization of the dog–human family as a pack.[146] A dominance model of dog–human relationships has been promoted by some dog trainers, such as on the television program Dog Whisperer. However it has been disputed that "trying to achieve status" is characteristic of dog–human interactions.[150] Pet dogs play an active role in family life; for example, a study of conversations in dog–human families showed how family members use the dog as a resource, talking to the dog, or talking through the dog, to mediate their interactions with each other.[151]
Clip the dog's nails.[3] If left untrimmed, a dog's nails can curl under into the paw pads or twist toes in a way that causes joint damage. To keep your dog's nails short, clip them regularly, depending on how fast his nails grow. If you can hear his nails on the ground when he walks, that means his nails are touching the ground, and are too long. [4]
Dog behavior is the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of the domestic dog (individuals or groups) to internal and/or external stimuli.[94] As the oldest domesticated species, with estimates ranging from 9,000–30,000 years BCE, the minds of dogs inevitably have been shaped by millennia of contact with humans. As a result of this physical and social evolution, dogs, more than any other species, have acquired the ability to understand and communicate with humans, and they are uniquely attuned to human behaviors.[18] Behavioral scientists have uncovered a surprising set of social-cognitive abilities in the domestic dog. These abilities are not possessed by the dog's closest canine relatives nor by other highly intelligent mammals such as great apes but rather parallel some of the social-cognitive skills of human children.[95]

Clean your dog's ears. It's normal for a clean ear to have some wax in it, but there shouldn't be any particular smell to it. To clean your dog's ears, apply some ear cleaning solution (bought at a pet supply store) to a cotton round. Not too much or it will drip into the ear while wiping. Wipe dirt and wax away from the inner ear, but don't rub vigorously, as this might cause sores. Don't push too far into the ear, either. If your dog has drop ears like a bassett hound, wipe the inside of the ear flag as dirt collects there as well. The groomers rule of thumb is to clean only what you can see.
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