^ vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Shuldiner, Emily; Koch, Ilana Janowitz; Kartzinel, Rebecca Y.; Hogan, Andrew; Brubaker, Lauren; Wanser, Shelby; Stahler, Daniel; Wynne, Clive D.L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Udell, Monique A.R. (1 July 2017). "Structural variants in genes associated with human Williams-Beuren syndrome underlie stereotypical hypersociability in domestic dogs". Science Advances. 3 (7): e1700398. Bibcode:2017SciA....3E0398V. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700398. PMC 5517105. PMID 28776031.
Coyotes and big cats have also been known to attack dogs. Leopards in particular are known to have a predilection for dogs, and have been recorded to kill and consume them regardless of their size. Tigers in Manchuria, Indochina, Indonesia, and Malaysia are also reported to kill dogs. Striped hyenas are known to kill dogs in Turkmenistan, India, and the Caucasus.
Dogs have a pair of anal scent glands that sit at the 8.20pm position on either side of the anus. Some dogs produce too much secretion and the glands stretch which causes the dog to scoot on his bottom. The glands can be emptied by applying gentle pressure underneath each gland, milking the secretion up and out onto a piece of cotton wool. Anal sac secretion is unpleasant so wear disposable gloves. Be careful not to squeeze too hard and if in doubt, stop and ask a professional groomer how to empty them.
Certain Pacific islands whose maritime settlers did not bring dogs, or where dogs died out after original settlement, notably: the Mariana Islands, Palau, Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Tonga, Marquesas, Mangaia in the Cook Islands, Rapa Iti in French Polynesia, Easter Island, Chatham Islands, and Pitcairn Island (settled by the Bounty mutineers, who killed off their dogs in order to escape discovery by passing ships).
We continually review and update our pet grooming policies, procedures and standards, under the supervision of our Director of Veterinary Medicine, with counsel from a number of independent experts in animal care, behavior and ethics. We continue to train our teams on and reinforce the critical importance of following those policies at all times. Since 2015, we've worked together with the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) and the Professional Pet Groomers & Stylists Alliance (PPGSA) to encourage and support national health and safety standards for the grooming industry. We believe these standards are critical to the wellbeing of pets everywhere, and we continue to work with other pet industry leaders to encourage industry-wide adoption and adherence to them.