^ Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K. (2016). "Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves". Genome Research. 26 (2): 163–173. doi:10.1101/gr.197517.115. PMC 4728369. PMID 26680994.
Dog intelligence is the ability of the dog to perceive information and retain it as knowledge for applying to solve problems. Dogs have been shown to learn by inference. A study with Rico showed that he knew the labels of over 200 different items. He inferred the names of novel items by exclusion learning and correctly retrieved those novel items immediately and also 4 weeks after the initial exposure. Dogs have advanced memory skills. A study documented the learning and memory capabilities of a border collie, "Chaser", who had learned the names and could associate by verbal command over 1,000 words[87]. Dogs are able to read and react appropriately to human body language such as gesturing and pointing, and to understand human voice commands, although a 2018 study on canine cognitive abilities found that dogs' capabilities are not more exceptional than those of other animals, such as horses, chimpanzees or cats.[88]
A Colorado study found bites in children were less severe than bites in adults.[179] The incidence of dog bites in the US is 12.9 per 10,000 inhabitants, but for boys aged 5 to 9, the incidence rate is 60.7 per 10,000. Moreover, children have a much higher chance to be bitten in the face or neck.[180] Sharp claws with powerful muscles behind them can lacerate flesh in a scratch that can lead to serious infections.[181]
Pet Love is a unique concept of mobile grooming performed at the pet owners’ address. Pet Love encompasses a fleet of more than 50 fully equipped mobile grooming salons and a staff of professional, experienced groomers operating in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. In 2017, Pet Love celebrated its 40th year of business tending to the grooming needs of DFW metroplex pet owners at their residences. With more than 50,000 groomings per year, Pet Love keeps your cats and dogs beautiful and healthy!
Dog grooming prices for nail trims can vary based on the the size and temperament of your dog, where the nail trimming takes place, and whether you bundle the trim with other grooming services. The average cost to get your dog’s nails trimmed usually ranges from approximately $10 to $25. Nationally, the average for dog grooming prices is $60-$80, which usually encompasses not only nail trimming but also bathing, haircuts and other services.
Unlike other domestic species which were primarily selected for production-related traits, dogs were initially selected for their behaviors.[96][97] In 2016, a study found that there were only 11 fixed genes that showed variation between wolves and dogs. These gene variations were unlikely to have been the result of natural evolution, and indicate selection on both morphology and behavior during dog domestication. These genes have been shown to affect the catecholamine synthesis pathway, with the majority of the genes affecting the fight-or-flight response[97][98] (i.e. selection for tameness), and emotional processing.[97] Dogs generally show reduced fear and aggression compared with wolves.[97][99] Some of these genes have been associated with aggression in some dog breeds, indicating their importance in both the initial domestication and then later in breed formation.[97] Traits of high sociability and lack of fear in dogs may include genetic modifications related to Williams-Beuren syndrome in humans, which cause hypersociability at the expense of problem solving ability.[100][101][102]
A common breeding practice for pet dogs is mating between close relatives (e.g. between half- and full siblings).[81] Inbreeding depression is considered to be due largely to the expression of homozygous deleterious recessive mutations.[82] Outcrossing between unrelated individuals, including dogs of different breeds, results in the beneficial masking of deleterious recessive mutations in progeny.[83]

In conformation shows, also referred to as breed shows, a judge familiar with the specific dog breed evaluates individual purebred dogs for conformity with their established breed type as described in the breed standard. As the breed standard only deals with the externally observable qualities of the dog (such as appearance, movement, and temperament), separately tested qualities (such as ability or health) are not part of the judging in conformation shows.


"While new to thumbtack, we have over 20 years of experience, a 5 star rating online & we're reasonably priced! Background: Our founder grew up around street dogs, aggressive dogs, and so-called dangerous breeds. And has been around dogs for more than 20 years and understands them (and other animals) better than he understands people. His core values, which are apart of the company are: Value, Respect, Compassion, Integrity & Love We can help you train your pup, exercise them, housebreak them and teach you basic tactics to overcome their basic behavioral issues. We have experience with rottweilers, German shepherds, pit-bulls and other large breeds. I believe there are no bad dogs, just bad manners trained into them by accident. We love playing with them, roughhousing with them and teaching them things. Here is a free pro-tip; dogs love being scratched where they can't reach. The favorite location is the back of their hind legs, base of the spine on their back (in between the shoulder blades), & the base of the tail... BUT, you have to scratch very, very hard. Be forewarned, they will forever greet you with their rear facing you. :)"


Dogs demonstrate a theory of mind by engaging in deception[89]. An experimental study showed compelling evidence that Australian dingos can outperform domestic dogs in non-social problem-solving, indicating that domestic dogs may have lost much of their original problem-solving abilities once they joined humans.[90] Another study indicated that after undergoing training to solve a simple manipulation task, dogs that are faced with an insoluble version of the same problem look at the human, while socialized wolves do not.[91] Modern domestic dogs use humans to solve their problems for them.[92][93]
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