Dogs have lived and worked with humans in many roles. In addition to dogs' role as companion animals, dogs have been bred for herding livestock (collies, sheepdogs),[154][17] hunting (hounds, pointers),[43] and rodent control (terriers).[17] Other types of working dogs include search and rescue dogs,[155] detection dogs trained to detect illicit drugs[156] or chemical weapons;[157] guard dogs; dogs who assist fishermen with the use of nets; and dogs that pull loads.[17] In 1957, the dog Laika became the first animal to be launched into Earth orbit, aboard the Soviets' Sputnik 2; she died during the flight.[158][159]
Certain Pacific islands whose maritime settlers did not bring dogs, or where dogs died out after original settlement, notably: the Mariana Islands,[123] Palau,[124] Marshall Islands,[125] Gilbert Islands,[125] New Caledonia,[126] Vanuatu,[126][127] Tonga,[127] Marquesas,[127] Mangaia in the Cook Islands, Rapa Iti in French Polynesia, Easter Island,[127] Chatham Islands,[128] and Pitcairn Island (settled by the Bounty mutineers, who killed off their dogs in order to escape discovery by passing ships[129]).

In a study of seven breeds of dogs (Bernese mountain dog, basset hound, Cairn terrier, Epagneul Breton, German Shepherd dog, Leonberger, and West Highland white terrier) it was found that inbreeding decreases litter size and survival.[84] Another analysis of data on 42,855 dachshund litters found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased and the percentage of stillborn puppies increased, thus indicating inbreeding depression.[85] In a study of boxer litters, 22% of puppies died before reaching 7 weeks of age.[86] Stillbirth was the most frequent cause of death, followed by infection. Mortality due to infection increased significantly with increases in inbreeding.[86]
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We continually review and update our pet grooming policies, procedures and standards, under the supervision of our Director of Veterinary Medicine, with counsel from a number of independent experts in animal care, behavior and ethics. We continue to train our teams on and reinforce the critical importance of following those policies at all times. Since 2015, we've worked together with the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) and the Professional Pet Groomers & Stylists Alliance (PPGSA) to encourage and support national health and safety standards for the grooming industry. We believe these standards are critical to the wellbeing of pets everywhere, and we continue to work with other pet industry leaders to encourage industry-wide adoption and adherence to them.

We continually review and update our pet grooming policies, procedures and standards, under the supervision of our Director of Veterinary Medicine, with counsel from a number of independent experts in animal care, behavior and ethics. We continue to train our teams on and reinforce the critical importance of following those policies at all times. Since 2015, we've worked together with the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) and the Professional Pet Groomers & Stylists Alliance (PPGSA) to encourage and support national health and safety standards for the grooming industry. We believe these standards are critical to the wellbeing of pets everywhere, and we continue to work with other pet industry leaders to encourage industry-wide adoption and adherence to them.
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